PARTS REQUIRED FOR A CCTV SYSTEM
CCTV system uses components that are directly connected to generate, transmit, process, display, and store video data. larger systems operated by professional security personnel are comprised of a number of components falling into several basic categories:
Camera (Analog or IP)
Video recorder (DVR or NVR)
Storage media (HDD, Cloud)
Transmission media (Cable or Wireless)
Display media (Monitor or Remote viewing)
Cameras are an essential component of any CCTV system. If not chosen wisely may lead to very poor image display. Effective camera selection requires detailed knowledge of the camera, it’s application and the environment where it’s to be fixed. Cameras can be Analog or IP (Network based). Cameras can be fixed (Fixed cameras focus on a single field of view, typically one particular area of interest.) or PTZ (pan-tilt-zoom cameras are motor driven and can pan left or right, tilt up or down, and zoom in or out to instantly customize the view as needed.)
Before camera selection, the answers to the following questions may help determine the best camera type:
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Digital Video recorder (DVR)
A Digital Video Recorder (DVR) contains software, video storage, and a computer hard disk all in a single unit. The DVR accepts analog video feeds and converts them to digital. It’s a cost-effective way to bring an analog CCTV system into the modern world, and provides some of the same benefits as IP video, but in a more budget-friendly solution.
Recording capability is essential for assessment, investigation, and evidence collection. A CCTV camera in a system sends digital or analog video to the DVR. A DVR receiving analog video takes two fields of the analog signal and builds one image, which is then digitized and compressed. Once the images / video is digitized and compressed, then it’s possible for users to do remote monitoring, make quick and easy searches, and have greater storage capacity. Think of the DVR as a cost-effective solution for those not yet ready to move to a full-on IP surveillance setup.
Benefits of DVR Recording
DVR recording is a great way to migrate your analog CCTV into a digital surveillance solution. This is a low-cost option that brings a number of benefits to those who already own analog cameras, or aren’t yet ready to make the move to a fully IP-based surveillance system.
Most digital video recorders now allow you to access your camera footage remotely over the internet. By connecting your analog cameras to a DVR, you can monitor video feeds in real time from any computer with internet access, and even from compatible mobile phones.
With DVRs, your footage is converted from analog to digital, so you can store significantly more video without the clutter, and it’s much faster and easier to sort through archived footage.
To make the most of available storage capacity, DVRs provide a number of different compression technologies. Common compression formats include Motion JPEG, MPEG-4, and H.264. With video compression, your files sizes are reduced as much as possible without compromising image quality.
Most digital video recorders offer password protection so only authorized users are able to access the video footage from remote locations.
Hard Drive Recorder
The hard drive capacity is a key specification for systems without a network storage strategy, since the device hard drive will determine how many days of recording remain before the system begins recording over the oldest video. The data storage requirements will depend on the type of cameras connected to the DVR. The resolution, image rate, motion detection features, complexity of image, and FOV will also affect the unit’s storage availability.
Other Recording Options
Network Video Recorder (NVRs) record digital video data transmitted over an IP network from multiple CCTV digital cameras. NVRs can be configured to record video in a digital format to a disk drive, portable storage device or a mass storage device. NVRs differ from DVRs as video input is delivered from an IP network. With an NVR configuration, video is encoded and processed at the camera and streamed to the NVR for storage or remote viewing. With a DVR configuration, video is encoded and processed at the DVR.
Hybrid DVR Hybrid DVRs incorporate functions of both NVRs and DVRs by accepting and converting video images from analog cameras as well as IP video inputs. Hybrid DVRs often have IP connectivity supporting remote viewing capabilities to play back recorded video from across the network. They also allow viewing of live video. Hybrid DVRs ease the transition from analog to IP surveillance. Since they support both camera types, you don’t have to restrict your camera options. This makes it easy to move towards an IP-based solution while still using lower-cost analog cameras when necessary.